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Aya Shawn
Living in Singapore, professional investorApr 11
Sanxingdui
is a modern place name, the name means "three mounds"
The place where the ruins were found was a wasteland with three mounds, so the locals called it "Sanxingdui"
name is obviously a modern one, so there cannot be "Sanxingdui" in the historical records of xia, Shang and Zhou. This should be easy to understand
Sanxingdui Ruins is an ancient site. In this site, there are traces of human activities for a long time. In fact, the lowest layer of ruins belongs to the Neolithic Age, dating back 5,000 years ago, while the largest layer of ruins dates back to about 3,500 years ago. Belongs to the same period as the Shang Dynasty.

三星堆
是一個現代地名,意思是“三個土丘”
遺址發現的地方是一片荒地,有三個土丘,當地人稱之為“三星堆”
這個名字顯然是現代的,所以夏商周的史籍中不可能有“三星堆”。這個應該很容易理解。
三星堆遺址是一個古老的遺址,在這個遺址里,很早就有人類活動的痕跡,其實最底層的遺址屬于新石器時代,距今5000多年,而最頂層的遺址則可追溯到約3500年前,與商朝屬于同一時期。


Left: Bronze kettle from the Shang Dynasty
Right: Bronze kettle from Sanxingdui

左:商代青銅壺
右:三星堆青銅壺

It is clear that this is an ancient tribe, having existed for more than a thousand years in total. At the end of his civilization, he had close ties with the Shang dynasty in the east.
Among the cultural relics unearthed at Sanxingdui, in addition to the unique bronze masks and bronze sacred trees, there are many cultural relics very similar to those of the Shang Dynasty, and there are also some similar cultural relics to other southern civilizations at that time. Therefore, Sanxingdui was not an independent civilization. It had close ties with other civilizations on mainland China at that time.
Since no writing was found at the Sanxingdui site, archaeologists are unable to determine his real name, so the "Sanxingdui site" is currently named after the place where it was found.
However, judging from its geographical location, time and cultural relic characteristics, it is very likely that the Sanxingdui civilization was recorded in the oracle bone inscxtions of the Shang Dynasty: Shu Kingdom
In the oracle bones library of the Shang Dynasty, Shu is recorded as one of its many servant states. When the Shang Dynasty collapsed, Shu joined the camp against him, and his army joined the Zhou Dynasty in overthrowing the Shang Dynasty.
Of course, there are many unreasonable phenomena in the distribution of cultural relics in Sanxingdui. Historians have other theories.

顯然,這是一個古老的部族,存在時間總計超過一千年,在其文明末期,與東方的商朝有著密切的聯系。
三星堆出土的文物中,除了獨特的青銅面具、青銅神樹等,還有不少與商代極為相似的文物,也有與當時其他南方文明相似的文物,因此三星堆并不是一個獨立的文明,它與當時中國大陸的其他文明有著密切的聯系。
由于三星堆遺址未發現任何文字,考古學家無法確定他的真實名字,所以目前“三星堆遺址”以發現地命名。
但從其地理位置、時代、文物特征等來看,三星堆文明很有可能是商代甲骨文中記載的:蜀國
在商朝的甲骨文庫中,蜀國被記載為商朝眾多的附庸國之一。商朝滅亡后,蜀國加入了反商陣營,蜀國的軍隊也加入周朝,推翻了商朝。
當然,三星堆的文物分布也存在很多不合理的現象,歷史學家也有其他的說法。


Left: Jade cong from Sanxingdui Civilization
Right: Jade cong from the Liangzhu Civilization in the south

左:三星堆文明的玉琮
右:南方良渚文明的玉琮

For example, some historians have discovered that although the remains of human life at the Sanxingdui site are very ancient, they are very crude. No huge palaces, mausoleums, or city ruins were discovered. All traces and evidence of human activities prove that this place seems to be just a small tribe.
But in this simple ruins, several huge sacrificial pits were discovered, filled with massive amounts of bronze, jade and ivory. These things are obviously not something that can be made in this simple tribal ruins.
According to the general principles of human civilization, when you find a large number of bronzes, irons, or pottery in an ancient site, you will have a high probability of discovering the places, materials, and waste where these things were made. But Sanxingdui found none of this.
All high-end human creations seemed to have fallen from the sky and been buried there.
Therefore, an additional guess also exists. A Chinese history professor told me about another guess:

比如,有歷史學家發現,三星堆遺址的人類生活遺跡雖然很古老,但卻十分簡陋,幾乎沒有發現任何巨大的宮殿、陵墓、城址,一切人類活動的痕跡和證據都證明,這里似乎只是一個小部落。
但就在這片簡陋的遺址中,卻發現了數個巨大的祭祀坑,坑內裝滿了大量的青銅、玉石和象牙,這些東西顯然不是在這片簡陋的部落遺址中能夠制作出來的。
按照人類文明的一般規律,當你在一個古遺址發現大量的青銅器、鐵器或者陶器時,有很大的概率會發現這些東西的制作地點、制作材料和遺留物,但三星堆什么都沒有發現。
這些人類的高端創造物仿佛都從天上掉下來并埋葬在那里。
因此,還有許多額外的猜測。一位中國歷史教授告訴我另一個猜測:


Left: Jade sacrificial obxts from the Sanxingdui Civilization
Right: Sacrificial obxts from the Erlitou Civilization
Erlitou is considered to be a city ruins from the xia Dynasty

左:三星堆文明的玉制祭祀器
右:二里頭文明的祭祀用品
二里頭被認為是夏代城市遺址

Sanxingdui is just a backward tribe, and a large number of high-level cultural relics found in Sanxingdui actually come from another more advanced civilization: xia
Yes, xia was the first dynasty in Chinese history. According to Chinese historical records, xia was founded in 2040 BC. After xia was defeated by Shang, its royal family was not wiped out. The Shang Dynasty allowed the xia royal family to continue to exist as common people, and they migrated to other places. But where they went, history has no record.
There is such a hypothesis that after xia's defeat, its royal family migrated with a large number of royal sacrificial supplies, and finally came to the tribe where Sanxingdui was located, and settled down again here. In order to prevent their massive wealth from being coveted by their enemies, they buried all these things underground, hoping that they would have the opportunity to regain their country in the future.
However, they never opened this treasure again until 3,500 years later.

三星堆只是一個落后的部族,三星堆發現的大量高級文物其實來自另一個更先進的文明:夏
是的,夏是中國歷史上第一個王朝。根據中國史書記載,夏建國于公元前2040年。夏被商滅后,其王室并未被消滅。商朝允許夏王室繼續以平民身份存在,他們則遷徙到其他地方。但他們去了哪里,歷史沒有記載。
有這樣一種假說,夏朝滅亡后,其王室帶著大量皇家祭祀用品遷徙,最終來到三星堆所在的部落,并在此地重新定居。為了防止自己的巨額財富被敵人覬覦,他們把這些東西全部埋在地下,希望將來有機會收復國家。
然而,直到3500年后他們才再次打開這批寶藏。


Left: Pottery from the Sanxingdui Civilization
Right: Pottery from the Erlitou Civilization

左圖:三星堆文明的陶器
右圖:二里頭文明的陶器

This explanation involves a lot of speculation and storytelling
But it can explain many unreasonable phenomena in Sanxingdui
1. Why are there so many high-level cultural relics?
As a defeated royal family, it is normal to transfer many of the dynasty's wealth and sacrificial supplies. This may also explain why among all the artifacts, there are very few weapons. Because they don't have much of an army.
2. Why is the Sanxingdui ruins so small?
This place was not originally the capital of the country, but a backward tribe. The nobles moved here to live, and naturally they could not recreate the glory of the imperial capital.
3. Why is there a big gap between the civilization level of the ruins and the civilization level of the cultural relics in the sacrificial pits?
Because all high-level cultural relics are foreign
4. Why are there many cultural relics similar to those of the Shang Dynasty and southern countries?
Because the xia Dynasty was once the center of civilization, it was normal to receive gifts from surrounding countries.
5. Why are their bronze masks and sacred trees so different from those of the Shang Dynasty?
The xia Dynasty itself is another civilization, older than the Shang Dynasty, and it is normal to have a unique style.
6. Why is the Jinsha ruins, dozens of kilometers south of Sanxingdui, considered to be the destination for the second migration of Sanxingdui people? It is later than Sanxingdui, but there are not so many high-level cultural relics.
The nobles buried all the dynasty's treasures and became a group of desolate common people. By the time their descendants migrated to the Jinsha ruins, they had lost the ability to make these things again.

這種解釋涉及很多猜測和故事
但可以解釋三星堆很多不合理的現象
1、為什么有這么多高級別文物?
作為戰敗的皇室,轉移很多王朝的財富和祭祀物資也是很正常的事。這或許也能解釋為什么在所有的文物中,武器很少。因為他們的軍隊不多。
2、三星堆遺址為什么這么???
這里原本并不是國家的首都,而是一個落后的部族,貴族們遷到這里居住,自然無法重現帝都的輝煌。
3、遺址的文明程度和祭祀坑內文物的文明程度為何差距這么大?
因為所有高級文物都是外來的
4、為什么有很多與商朝及南方國家相似的文物?
因為夏朝曾經是文明的中心,接受周邊國家的饋贈是很正常的事。
5、他們的青銅面具、神樹為何與商朝有如此大的不同?
夏朝本身是另外一個文明,比商朝還要古老,有獨特的風格也很正常。
6、為什么說三星堆以南幾十公里的金沙遺址是三星堆人第二次遷徙的目的地?它比三星堆晚,但高等級的文物卻沒有那么多。
貴族們把王朝的寶物全部埋藏起來,成為了一群凄涼的平民,等到他們的后代遷徙到金沙遺址時,已經失去了重新制造這些東西的能力。

原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.top-shui.cn 轉載請注明出處