The Fascinating History of Lemonade

檸檬飲料的有趣的歷史


What could be better than a cold glass of lemonade on a hot summer day? People throughout history have been downing this puckery thirst quencher.

在炎炎夏日還有什么東西比一杯清涼可口的檸檬飲料更棒的呢?縱觀(guān)歷史,人們一直以來(lái)都喜歡這種冰涼解渴的飲料。

Water, sugar and lemon juice: The recipe hasn't changed much in more than 1,000 years. Tart or sweet, pink or yellow, clear, cloudy or carbonated, for as long as life has been handing out lemons, people the world over — from the ancient Egyptians to?Beyoncé?— have been making lemonade.

水、糖、檸檬汁。配方一千年多年未變。酸或甜,粉紅或黃,透明或渾濁或加了碳酸,只要生活中有檸檬,從古埃及時(shí)代到碧昂絲名聲響亮的今天的全世界的人都會(huì )制作檸檬飲料。
原創(chuàng )翻譯:龍騰網(wǎng) http://www.top-shui.cn 轉載請注明出處


The exact origin?of the lemon itself has not been easy to ascertain, but new research has clarified its lineage as a sour orange and citron hybrid. A February 2018?study?in the science journal Nature reveals that the discovery of fossilized leaves in the Yunnan province of China proves citrus has been around since the late Miocene epoch, some 8 million years ago.

雖然人們還未弄清楚檸檬的確切起源,但是最新的研究表明,這種水果來(lái)源于桔子和圓佛手柑的雜交品種。一份2018年2月份發(fā)布在科學(xué)雜志《自然》上的研究報告介紹了在中國云南省的樹(shù)葉化石的發(fā)現,這項發(fā)現證明了檸檬大約在800萬(wàn)年前的中新世開(kāi)始就已經(jīng)出現了。

An Ancient Lineage
The earliest record of the precursor to lemonade hails from the Mediterranean coast of medi Egypt. Kashkab was made from fermented barley combined with mint, rue, black pepper and citron leaf. Next time you're at the juice bar, ask your mixologist to whip you up a frothy mug of kashkab! Or how about a shot of sweet and tangy qatarmizat instead? Thanks to the chronicles of poet and traveler Nasir-i-Khusraw, who wrote accounts of 10th-century Egyptian life, and to Jewish books and documents in the Cairo Genizah, we know that the medi Jewish community in Cairo consumed, traded and exported bottles of the sugary lemon juice concoction called qatarmizat through the 13th century.

一個(gè)古老的出身
最早的關(guān)于檸檬水前身的記錄來(lái)自中世紀埃及的地中海沿岸。Kashkab是由發(fā)酵的大麥與薄荷,蕓香,黑胡椒和香櫞葉混合而成。下次你去果汁店時(shí),請讓你的果汁制作師傅給你來(lái)一杯泡沫Kashkab!要不然,你覺(jué)得來(lái)一個(gè)甜蜜而濃郁的qatarmizat的特寫(xiě)怎么樣呢?多虧了詩(shī)人和旅行家Nasir-i-Khusraw編寫(xiě)的關(guān)于10世紀埃及生活的記錄,以及開(kāi)羅Genizah的猶太書(shū)籍和文件,我們得以13世紀的開(kāi)羅的中世紀猶太人社區消費、買(mǎi)賣(mài)和出口瓶裝被稱(chēng)為qatarmizat的含糖混合檸檬汁的情況。

While the?citron?(like a lemon but larger, with a super thick rind and not much pulp or juice) was likely known by the ancient Jews and throughout the Mediterranean before the time of Christ, there's no proof that lemons were around in pre-Islamic times. The mosaics of Rome and frescoes of?Pompeii?depict images of citrus fruits resembling lemons and oranges, but there's no paleobotanical or written evidence that they existed there. The earliest written reference to the lemon tree is in a 10th-century Arabic book on farming by Qustus al-Rumi. And in the late 12th century, Ibn Jami', the personal physician to the Muslim leader Saladin, wrote a treatise on the lemon, bringing it to the attention of a wider Mediterranean audience.

雖然在基督時(shí)代之前,古代猶太人和整個(gè)地中海地區生活的人可能都知道香櫞的存在(香櫞像檸檬,但更大,有超厚的果皮,沒(méi)有多少果肉或果汁),但沒(méi)有證據證明檸檬在伊斯蘭教興起前的時(shí)代就已經(jīng)存在了。羅馬的馬賽克和龐貝的壁畫(huà)描繪了類(lèi)似檸檬和橘子的柑橘類(lèi)水果的圖像,但沒(méi)有古植物學(xué)的證據或書(shū)面證據表明它們那個(gè)時(shí)候就已經(jīng)存在于那里了。最早的關(guān)于檸檬樹(shù)的書(shū)面參考資料是在一本由Qustus al-Rumi撰寫(xiě)的關(guān)于10世紀阿拉伯農業(yè)的文書(shū)中。在12世紀后期,穆斯林領(lǐng)導人薩拉丁的私人醫生伊本·賈米(Ibn Jami)寫(xiě)了一篇關(guān)于檸檬的論著(zhù),引起了地中海沿岸人民的廣泛注意。

Lemons Show Up In Paris ...
Flash forward to 17th century Europe. Lemonade?debuted?in Paris on August 20, 1630. Made of sparkling water, lemon juice and?honey, vendors sold it from tanks strapped to their backs. While popular across Europe, lemonade became so fashionable in Paris that in 1676 the vendors incorporated and formed a unx called the?Compagnie de Limonadiers.?The?lemonade craze?even helped Paris fend off the plague.

檸檬出現在巴黎
我們把目光投向17世紀的歐洲。檸檬水于1630年8月20日在巴黎首次亮相。它由蘇打水,檸檬汁和蜂蜜制成,商人們將它裝入綁在背上的水箱中出售。檸檬水風(fēng)靡歐洲,它在巴黎變得如此時(shí)髦,以至于到了1676年,這些商人們合作建立了一個(gè)名為“汽水協(xié)會(huì )”的工會(huì )。檸檬水熱潮甚至幫助巴黎抵御住了瘟疫。

Britain's contribution to the lemonade craze came by way of chemist Joseph Priestley who invented an apparatus for making?carbonated water. By the 1780s, Johann Schweppe, a German-Swiss jeweler, had developed a new method of carbonation using a compression pump that made mass production more efficient. By the 1830s, ready availability of?Schweppes?fizzy lemonade had stymied the growth of Europe's lemonade stands.

英國人對檸檬水熱潮的貢獻來(lái)自化學(xué)家約瑟夫.普里斯特利,他發(fā)明了一種制造碳酸水的設備。到18世紀80年代,德國瑞士雙重國籍的珠寶商約翰.施維普使用壓縮泵開(kāi)發(fā)了一種新的碳酸化方法,使大規模生產(chǎn)更加高效。到19世紀30年代,施維普斯泡騰檸檬水的現成供應已經(jīng)遏制住了歐洲檸檬水售賣(mài)小攤數量的增長(cháng)。
原創(chuàng )翻譯:龍騰網(wǎng) http://www.top-shui.cn 轉載請注明出處


... Then In America
By the 18th century, lemonade had made its way to America along with waves of European immigrants. During the Victorian era, the women's?temperance movement?pushed lemonade as an alternative to alcohol. One Sunkist slogan of the day read: "Good-bye to liquor, here's to lemonade." From 1877-1881, the White House banned alcohol from all state dinners and other functions. Although President Rutherford B. Hayes made the decision himself as a way to court the Prohibition Party, critics of the ban dubbed his wife Lucy, a renowned teetotaler,?"Lemonade Lucy"?and the moniker stuck. It's fun to imagine how lips must have puckered when in lieu of alcohol she might have served Isabella Beeton's?lemonade recipe?from the 1861 Victorian classic "The Book of Household Management."

然后是在美國
到了18世紀,檸檬水已經(jīng)隨著(zhù)歐洲移民的浪潮進(jìn)入了美國。在維多利亞時(shí)代,女性的戒酒運動(dòng)將檸檬水作為酒精的替代品。當時(shí)的Sunkist的一個(gè)口號上寫(xiě)著(zhù):“再見(jiàn)酒,這是檸檬水?!睆?877年至1881年,白宮禁止在所有國宴和其他種類(lèi)的宴會(huì )上提供酒精。盡管美國總統盧瑟?!·海耶斯決定將禁酒派告上法庭,但該禁令的支持者稱(chēng)總統的妻子露西是一位有名的禁酒主義者,她的“檸檬水露西”的綽號很有名。完成于1861年維多利亞時(shí)代的經(jīng)典著(zhù)作——《家務(wù)管理之書(shū)》的作者伊莎貝拉·貝頓的代替酒精的檸檬水配方可能會(huì )讓她撅起嘴巴,光是想象一下都會(huì )覺(jué)得很有趣。

The Circus Connection
Even the circus has had a starring role in lemonade's long history. By the 19th century, both ice and the traveling circus had hit the scene and both were taking off. The first known mention lixing?pink lemonade?to the circus comes from West Virginia's Wheeling Register in 1879. Circus lore has many tales of how its lemonade turned pink, but historians find two of them most viable. One story from 1912 goes like this: A concession worker "invents" pink lemonade when he accidentally drops red-colored cinnamon candies into a vat of regular lemonade. In proverbial "the show must go on" style, he serves the lemonade anyway and the people lap it up.

檸檬飲料與馬戲團的聯(lián)系
即便是馬戲團也在檸檬飲料的悠久的歷史發(fā)展中發(fā)揮著(zhù)重要的作用。到了19世紀,冰馬戲團和流動(dòng)馬戲團登上了歷史舞臺。第一個(gè)為人所知的將粉紅檸檬水與馬戲團聯(lián)系起來(lái)的是1879年來(lái)自西弗吉尼亞州的Wheeling Register馬戲團。馬戲團的傳說(shuō)中有很多關(guān)于它的檸檬水如何是變成粉紅色的故事,歷史學(xué)家從中找出了兩篇比較可靠的故事。其中一個(gè)發(fā)生在1912年的故事是這樣的:當一位特許工人意外地將紅色肉桂糖放入一大桶普通檸檬水中時(shí), “發(fā)明”出了粉紅色的檸檬水。按照眾所周知的“節目必須繼續”的風(fēng)格,他總會(huì )為馬戲觀(guān)眾提供檸檬水,人們會(huì )把它們喝光。

The other story, from 1857, is just plain gross: A harried concession worker, in need of water to make a fresh batch of lemonade for an impatient line of thirsty rubbernecks, grabs the first liquid he sees and it turns out to be a tub of wash water in which a performer has just wrung out her dirty pink tights. He uses it to make his new-and-improved "strawberry lemonade" and the crowd goes wild. Story has it that from then on sales doubled and henceforth no top notch circus was ever without pink lemonade.

另一個(gè)故事發(fā)生在1857年,過(guò)程很簡(jiǎn)單:一個(gè)忙碌的特許工人,需要水來(lái)制作一批新鮮的檸檬水,用于供應那些口渴的消費者,這些口渴的消費者會(huì )選擇他們看到的第一種液體,結果是他們看到一個(gè)站在浴缸中的演員擰干她的粉紅色緊身褲的臟水。這名工人用這些臟水來(lái)制作新的、改良的“草莓檸檬水”,人群為之癲狂。故事大概就是這樣,就是從那時(shí)起,檸檬水的銷(xiāo)量增加了一倍,從此以后任何一個(gè)一流的馬戲團都會(huì )供應粉紅色的檸檬水。

Tart or sweet, pink or yellow, clear, cloudy or carbonated, what better way to face the world head-on than with a cold glass of nature's whoopass in hand? Lemonade abides as the classic metaphor for good old American stick-to-itiveness, making-do and pluck. So lemons, you do you. Life, we've got this.

酸或甜,粉紅或黃色,透明,混濁或碳酸化,有什么更好的方式能夠迎合大眾的口味和需求呢?檸檬被比喻為美國人民堅忍不拔、敢作敢為的精神。檸檬啊,你做你自己吧,我們已經(jīng)得到了我們想要得到的東西了。